Research Behind Master Fear of Flying

Master Fear of Flying is the result of over 6 years of extensive research, design and development. The program is built upon the scientifically validated approach to overcoming fears and phobias called Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT).

Below you will read some important research and how we incorporated the findings into Master Fear of Flying:

Research findings

How we applied them

Study

Virtual reality exposure and imaginal exposure in the treatment of fear of flying: a pilot study 1

Finding

Virtual reality treated group experienced less anxiety during the real flight after treatment

Our Application

Using real images and sounds from airports and planes, users are immersed into the situations that trigger their fear. In a safe place, users can confront their fear and learn how to manage it. When the time comes, users will have lowered their fear response to situations that usually trigger them, allowing them to fly with less fear

Study

The Nature of Threat: Enhanced Recall of Internal Threat Words in Fear of Flying 2

Finding

For individuals with fear of flying, internal sensations are also essential threat stimuli to use in exposure, next to external stimuli

Our Application

We focus on both on external stimuli (such as the sounds of the plane, or the feeling of turbulence), and the internal stimuli (such as feeling a panic attack coming on, or elevated heart rate) in order to give the best therapy possible

Study

Heart Rate Variability Profiles and Exposure Therapy Treatment Outcome in Flight Phobia 3

Finding

Individuals who were treated successfully with exposure therapy were found to have higher emotional involvement

Our Application

We help users become emotionally involved by getting to the root of their fear of flying. By using in-depth questionnaires, we are able to deliver a highly personalised experience that truly engages users

Study

Examining the nature of fear of flying 4

Finding

Fear of flying is based more on several flight-embedded innate fears than on learned fears from flight-specific experiences

Our Application

Through the use of our detailed questionnaire process, the program evaluates users’ fears on a wide range of levels; moods, physical sensations, thoughts, beliefs and behaviours

Study

Slope of change throughout exposure treatment for flight phobia: the role of autonomic flexibility5

Finding

Flight-phobic patients were successfully treated with a computer-assisted fear of flying treatment

Our Application

Our program utilises in-app imaginal exposure to immerse users experiences that match the triggers of their fear. By confronting their fear, users can de-sensitise themselves and lower their response to fear stimuli

Study

Increased interoceptive awareness in fear of flying: sensitivity to suffocation signals6

Finding

Subjects with fear of flying were found to have higher interoceptive awareness. It follows that treatment interventions for fear of flying should be supplemented with interventions that target internal stimuli.

Our Application

We focus heavily on the internal sensations that users experience when dealing with their fear of flying. Users receive powerful strategies to manage the way they interpreted internal sensations, as well as external sensations

Study

Virtual reality versus computer-aided exposure treatments for fear of flying7

Finding

Virtual reality exposure therapy and computer aided exposure therapy with a therapist can be equally effective for fear of flying treatment

Our Application

Master Fear of Flying uses both virtual reality ‘imaginal’ exposure exercises along with therapist led Cognitive Behavioural Therapy sessions to maximise the results of using the app

Study

The psychology of fear of flying (part I): a critical evaluation of current perspectives on the nature, prevalence and etiology of fear of flying8

Finding

Fear of flying is influenced by complex psychological, social and physiological factors unique to each individual. Effective psychological interventions must therefore be founded on a comprehensive functional assessment

Our Application

Step one in the program is a thorough evaluation of the user, covering situations, fears, moods, physical sensations, thoughts, beliefs and safety behaviours used. This allows the creation of a customised, personalised and interactive experience that caters to the individual’s needs

Study

Virtual reality exposure in the treatment of fear of flying9

Finding

All studies that used cognitive behavioural therapy and relaxation techniques in addition to virtual reality treatment were effective

Our Application

The Master Fear of Flying approach includes both Cognitive Behavioual Therapy in conjunction with virtual reality exposure techniques to deliver the most effective treatment possible

Study

Use of skills learned in CBT for fear of flying: managing flying anxiety after September 11th10

Finding

That use of skills taught in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) treatment is associated with reduced flying anxiety in the face of a fear-relevant event and over the long term

Our Application

Step one in the program is a thorough evaluation of the user, covering situations, fears, moods, physical sensations, thoughts, beliefs and safety behaviours used. This allows the creation of a customised, peronalised and interactive experience that caters to the individual’s needs

Study

Fear of flying treatment methods: virtual reality exposure vs. cognitive behavioral therapy11

Finding

No statistically significant difference was found between virtual reality exposure and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy to reduce fear of flying

Our Application

We use both Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and virtual reality exposure in order to provide to most effective treatment possible.

Study

Behavioral and cognitive group treatment for fear of flying: a randomized controlled trial12

Finding

The 2-day Cognitive Behavioural Group Therapy program was significantly more effective than the 1-day BGT program on subjective measures of fear and self-efficacy.

Our Application

By receiving therapy and exposure exercises through the app, users have the ability to experience unlimited therapy. Users can get far greater benefit by using the app on a regular basis, than limited therapy sessions with a therapist. It can also be used as a follow up tool to therapy sessions

Study

Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety disorders is here to stay13

Finding

Randomised, controlled trials show that internet-delivered Cognitive Behavioural Therapy delivers benefits similar to face-to-face therapy.

Our Application

By building our treatment using Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, you get the best treatment known to overcome anxiety, delivered in a proven format with the convenience of having the mobile apps, when and where you need them.

Study

The Expanding Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy Treatment Umbrella for the Anxiety Disorders: Disorder-Specific and Transdiagnostic Approaches14

Finding

Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is an empirically supported treatment for anxiety disorders. CBT treatments are based on disorder-specific protocols that have been developed to target individual anxiety disorders.

Our Application

The protocols used in Master Fear of Flying are designed upon empirically proven treatment and are designed to minimise the reoccurrence of the fear of flying.

Study

The Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Review of Meta-analyses15

Finding

Of all the uses of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, some of the strongest support of its effectiveness is for treating anxiety disorders, such as the fear of flying.

Our Application

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy forms the backbone of the proven treatment you will receive while using Master Fear of Flying.

Sources
  1. Rus-Calafell, Mar, et al. “Virtual Reality Exposure and Imaginal Exposure in the Treatment of Fear of Flying: A Pilot Study.” Behavior modification (2013): 0145445513482969.
  2. Bogaerde, Anouk Vanden, Joris Pieters, and Rudi De Raedt. “The nature of Threat: Enhanced recall of internal threat words in fear of flying.” Cognitive therapy and research 36.4 (2012): 390-396.
  3. Bornas, Xavier, et al. “Heart Rate Variability Profiles and Exposure Therapy Treatment Outcome in Flight Phobia.” Applied psychophysiology and biofeedback 37.1 (2012): 53-62.
  4. Hawkins-Gilligan, Janice, Judith A. Dygdon, and Anthony J. Conger. “Examining the Nature of Fear of Flying.” Aviation, space, and environmental medicine 82.10 (2011): 964-971.
  5. Bornas, Xavier, et al. “Slope of change throughout exposure treatment for flight phobia: the role of autonomic flexibility.” Journal of clinical psychology 67.6 (2011): 550-560
  6. Vanden Bogaerde, Anouk, Eric Derom, and Rudi De Raedt. “Increased interoceptive awareness in fear of flying: Sensitivity to suffocation signals.” Behaviour research and therapy 49.6 (2011): 427-432.
  7. Tortella-Feliu, Miquel, et al. “Virtual reality versus computer aided exposure treatments for fear of flying.” Behavior modification 35.1 (2011): 3-30.
  8. Oakes, Margaret, and Robert Bor. “The psychology of fear of flying (part I): A critical evaluation of current perspectives on the nature, prevalence and etiology of fear of flying.” Travel medicine and infectious disease 8.6 (2010): 327-338.
  9. da Costa, Rafael T., Aline Sardinha, and Antonio E. Nardi. “Virtual reality exposure in the treatment of fear of flying.” Aviation, space, and environmental medicine 79.9 (2008): 899-903.
  10. Kim, Simon, et al. “Use of skills learned in CBT for fear of flying: Managing flying anxiety after September 11th.” Journal of anxiety disorders 22.2 (2008): 301-309.
  11. Krijn, Merel, et al. “Fear of flying treatment methods: virtual reality exposure vs. cognitive behavioral therapy.” Aviation, space, and environmental medicine 78.2 (2007): 121-128.
  12. Van Gerwen, Lucas J., Philip Spinhoven, and Richard Van Dyck. “Behavioral and cognitive group treatment for fear of flying: A randomized controlled trial.” Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry 37.4 (2006): 358-371.
  13. Andrews, Gavin, Jill M. Newby, and Alishia D. Williams. “Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Anxiety Disorders Is Here to Stay.” Current psychiatry reports 17.1 (2015): 1-5.
  14. Rector, Neil A., Vincent Man, and Bethany Lerman. “The expanding cognitive-behavioural therapy treatment umbrella for the anxiety disorders: disorder-specific and transdiagnostic approaches.” Canadian journal of psychiatry. Revue canadienne de psychiatrie 59.6 (2014): 301.
  15. Hofmann, Stefan G., et al. “The efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy: a review of meta-analyses.” Cognitive therapy and research 36.5 (2012): 427-440.